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Provides an AMP paywall and subscription support.


Required Scripts

<script async custom-element="amp-access" src=""></script>

AMP Access or "AMP paywall and subscription support" gives Publishers control over which content can be accessed by a Reader and with what restrictions, based on the Reader’s subscription status, number of views, and other factors.

Relationship to amp-subscriptions

The amp-subscriptions extension offers similar features to amp-access. However, it supports a more specialized access paywall protocol. Some notable notable differences are:

  1. The amp-subscriptions entitlements response is similar to the amp-access authorization, but it is strictly defined and standardized.
  2. The amp-subscriptions extension allows multiple services to be configured for the page to participate in access/paywall decisions. They are executed concurrently and prioritized based on which service returns the positive response.
  3. AMP viewers are allowed to provide amp-subscriptions a signed authorization response based on an independent agreement with publishers as a proof of access.
  4. In amp-subscriptions content markup is standardized allowing apps and crawlers to easily detect premium content sections.

Because of standardization of markup, multi provider support and improved viewer support it is recommended that new publisher and paywall provider implementations use amp-subscriptions.


The proposed solution gives control to the Publisher over the following decisions and flows:

  • Create and maintain users
  • Control of metering (allow for a certain number of free views)
  • Responsibility for the login flow
  • Responsibility for authenticating the user
  • Responsibility for access rules and authorization
  • Flexibility over access parameters on a per-document basis

The solution comprises the following components:

  1. AMP Reader ID: provided by the AMP ecosystem, this is a unique identifier of the Reader as seen by AMP.
  2. Access Content Markup: authored by the Publisher, defines which parts of a document are visible in which circumstances.
  3. Authorization endpoint: provided by the Publisher, returns the response that explains which part of a document the Reader can consume.
  4. Pingback endpoint: provided by the Publisher, is used to send the "view" impression for a document.
  5. Login Link and Login Page: allows the Publisher to authenticate the Reader and connect their identity with AMP Reader ID.

Google AMP Cache returns the document to the Reader with some sections obscured using Access Content Markup. The AMP Runtime calls the Authorization endpoint and uses the response to either hide or show different sections as defined by the Access Content Markup. After the document has been shown to the Reader, AMP Runtime calls the Pingback endpoint that can be used by the Publisher to update the countdown meter (number of free views used).

The solution also allows the Publisher to place in the AMP document a Login Link that launches the Login/Subscribe page where the Publisher can authenticate the Reader and associate the Reader’s identity in their system with the AMP Reader ID.

In its basic form, this solution sends the complete (though obscured) document to the Reader and simply shows/hides restricted sections based on the Authorization response. However, the solution also provides the "server" option, where the restricted sections can be excluded from the initial document delivery and downloaded only after the authorization has been confirmed.

Supporting AMP Access requires that the Publisher implement the components described above. Access Content Markup and Authorization endpoint are required. Pingback endpoint and Login Page are optional.

AMP Reader ID

To assist access services and use cases, AMP Access introduces the concept of Reader ID.

The Reader ID is an anonymous and unique ID created by the AMP ecosystem. It is unique for each Reader/Publisher pair - a Reader is identified differently to two different Publishers. It is a non-reversible ID. The Reader ID is included in all AMP/Publisher communications and has very high entropy. Publishers can use the Reader ID to identify the Reader and map it to their own identity systems.

The Reader ID is constructed on the user device and intended to be long-lived. However, it follows the normal browser storage rules, including those for incognito windows. The intended lifecycle of a Reader ID is 1 year between uses or until the user clears their cookies. The Reader IDs are not currently shared between devices.

The Reader ID is constructed similarly to the mechanism used to build ExternalCID described here. An example Reader ID is amp-OFsqR4pPKynymPyMmplPNMvxSTsNQob3TnK-oE3nwVT0clORaZ1rkeEz8xej-vV6.

AMP Access and Cookies

Publishers can use their own authentication cookies, or they may rely on the Reader ID, or a combination of both.

Access Content Markup

Access Content Markup determines which sections are visible or hidden based on the Authorization response returned from the Authorization endpoint. It is described via special markup attributes.

Authorization Endpoint

Authorization is an endpoint provided by the publisher and called by the AMP Runtime or Google AMP Cache. It is a credentialed CORS GET endpoint. This endpoint returns the access parameters that can be used by the Content Markup to hide or show different parts of the document.

Pingback Endpoint

Pingback is an endpoint provided by the publisher and called by the AMP Runtime or Google AMP Cache. It is a credentialed CORS POST endpoint. AMP Runtime calls this endpoint automatically when the Reader has started viewing the document. This endpoint is also called after the Reader has successfully completed the Login Flow. One of the main goals of the Pingback is for the Publisher to update metering information.

Pingback optional. It can be disabled by setting noPingback configuration property to true.

Login Page is implemented and served by the Publisher and called by the AMP Runtime. It is normally shown as a browser dialog.

Login Page is triggered when the Reader taps on the Login Link which can be placed by the Publisher anywhere in the document.

Specification v0.1


All of the endpoints are configured in the AMP document as a JSON object in the HEAD of the document:

<script id="amp-access" type="application/json">
    "property": value,

The following properties are defined in this configuration:

Property Values Description
authorization <URL> The HTTPS URL for the Authorization endpoint.
pingback <URL> The HTTPS URL for the Pingback endpoint.
noPingback true/false When true, disables pingback.
login <URL> or
<Map[string, URL]>
The HTTPS URL for the Login Page or a set of URLs for different types of login pages.
authorizationFallbackResponse <object> The JSON object to be used in place of the authorization response if it fails.
authorizationTimeout <number> Timeout (in milliseconds) after which the authorization request is considered as failed. Default is 3000. Values greater than 3000 are allowed only in dev environment.
type "client" or "server" Default is "client". The "server" option is under design discussion and these docs will be updated when it is ready.
namespace string Default is empty. Namespace is required if multiple access providers are specified.

<URL> values specify HTTPS URLs with substitution variables. The substitution variables are covered in more detail in the Access URL Variables section below.

Here’s an example of the AMP Access configuration:

<script id="amp-access" type="application/json">
    "authorization": "",
    "pingback": "",
    "login": "",
    "authorizationFallbackResponse": {"error": true}

Multiple access providers

It is possible to specify multiple access providers using an array instead of a single object and providing a namespace for each entry.

<script id="amp-access" type="application/json">
      "property": value,
      "namespace": value

Access URL Variables

When configuring the URLs for various endpoints, the Publisher can use substitution variables. The full list of these variables are defined in the AMP Var Spec. In addition, this spec adds a few access-specific variables such as READER_ID and AUTHDATA. Some of the most relevant variables are described in the table below:

Var Description
AUTHDATA(field) The value of the field in the authorization response.
RETURN_URL The placeholder for the return URL specified by the AMP runtime for a Login Dialog to return to.
SOURCE_URL The Source URL of this AMP document. If the document is served from a CDN, the AMPDOC_URL will be a CDN URL, while SOURCE_URL will be the original source URL.
AMPDOC_URL The URL of this AMP document.
CANONICAL_URL The canonical URL of this AMP document.
VIEWER The URL of the AMP Viewer.
RANDOM A random number. Helpful to avoid browser caching.

Here’s an example of the URL extended with Reader ID, Canonical URL, Referrer information and random cachebuster:

AUTHDATA variable is available to Pingback and Login URLs. It allows passing any field in the authorization response as an URL parameter. E.g. AUTHDATA(isSubscriber). The nested expressions are allowed as well, such as AUTHDATA(other.isSubscriber). If using namespaces, namespaces can be prepended to the field e.g. AUTHDATA(anamespace.afield).

Access Content Markup

Access Content Markup describes which sections are visible or hidden. It is comprised of two AMP attributes: amp-access and amp-access-hide that can be placed on any HTML element.

The amp-access attribute provides the expression that yields true or false based on the authorization response returned by the Authorization endpoint. The resulting value indicates whether or not the element and its contents are visible.

The amp-access value is a boolean expression defined in a SQL-like language. The grammar is defined in the Appendix A. It is defined as following:

<div amp-access="expression">...</div>

Properties and values refer to the properties and values of the Authorization response returned by the Authorization endpoint. This provides a flexible system to support different access scenarios. If using namespaces, just prepend namespaces to property names, e.g. anamespace.aproperty.

The amp-access-hide attribute can be used to optimistically hide the element before the Authorization response has been received, which can show it. It provides the semantics of "invisible by default". The authorization response returned by the Authorization later may rescind this default and make section visible. When amp-access-hide attribute is omitted, the section will be shown/included by default. The amp-access-hide attribute can only be used in conjunction with the amp-access attribute.

<div amp-access="expression" amp-access-hide>...</div>

If Authorization request fails, amp-access expressions are not evaluated and whether a section is visible or hidden is determined by the presence of the amp-access-hide attribute initially provided by the document.

We can extend the set of amp-access-* attributes as needed to support different obfuscation and rendering needs.

If Authorization request fails and the "authorizationFallbackResponse" response is not specified in the documentation, amp-access expressions are not evaluated and whether a section is visible or hidden is determined by the presence of the amp-access-hide attribute initially provided by the document.

Here’s an example that shows either login link or the complete content based on the subscription status:

  Title of the document

  First snippet in the document.

<div amp-access="NOT subscriber" amp-access-hide>
  <a on="tap:amp-access.login">Become a subscriber now!</a>

<div amp-access="subscriber">
  Full content.


  • subscriber is a boolean field in the authorization response returned by the Authorization endpoint. This section is hidden by default, which is optional.
  • This example elects to show full content optimistically.

Here’s another example that shows the disclaimer to the Reader about the state of metering:

<section amp-access="views <= maxViews">
  <template amp-access-template type="amp-mustache">
    You are reading article {{views}} out of {{maxViews}}.

And here’s an example that shows additional content to the premium subscribers:

<section amp-access="subscriptonType = 'premium'">
  Shhh… No one but you can read this content.

Authorization Endpoint

Authorization is configured via authorization property in the AMP Access Configuration section. It is a credentialed CORS GET endpoint. See CORS Origin Security for how this request should be secured.

Authorization can take any parameters as defined in the Access URL Variables section. For instance, it could pass AMP Reader ID and document URL. Besides URL parameters, the Publisher may use any information naturally delivered via HTTP protocol, such as Reader’s IP address. The inclusion of the READER_ID is required.

This endpoint produces the authorization response that can be used in the content markup expressions to show/hide different parts of content.

The request format is:

The response is a free-form JSON object: it can contain any properties and values with few limitations. The limitations are:

  • The property names have to conform to the restrictions defined by the amp-access expressions grammar (see Appendix A). This mostly means that the property names cannot contain characters such as spaces, dashes and other characters that do not conform to the "amp-access" specification.
  • The property values can only be one of the types: string, number, boolean.
  • Values can also be nested as objects with values of the same types: string, number, boolean.
  • The total size of the serialized authorization response cannot exceed 500 bytes.
  • Please ensure that the response does not include any personally identifiable information (PII) or personal data.

Here’s a small list of possible ideas for properties that can be returned from the Authorization endpoint:

  • Metering info: maximum allowed number of views and current number of views.
  • Whether the Reader is logged in or a subscriber.
  • A more detailed type of the subscription: basic, premium
  • Geo: country, region, custom publication region

Here’s an example of the response when the Reader is not a subscriber and is metered at 10 articles/month and has viewed 6 articles already:

  "maxViews": 10,
  "currentViews": 6,
  "subscriber": false

Here’s an example of the response when the Reader is logged in and has a premium subscription type:

  "loggedIn": true,
  "subscriptionType": "premium"

This RPC may be called in the prerendering phase and thus it should not be used for meter countdown, since the Reader may never actually see the document.

Another important consideration is that in some cases AMP runtime may need to call Authorization endpoint multiple times per document impression. This can happen when AMP Runtime believes that the access parameters for the Reader have changed significantly, e.g. after a successful Login Flow.

The authorization response may be used by AMP Runtime and extensions for three different purposes:

  1. When evaluating amp-access expressions.
  2. When evaluating <template> templates such as amp-mustache.
  3. When providing additional variables to pingback and login URLs using AUTHDATA(field).

The Authorization endpoint is called by the AMP Runtime as a credentialed CORS endpoint. As such, it must implement the CORS protocol. It should use CORS Origin and source origin to restrict the access to this service as described in the CORS Origin Security. This endpoint may use Publisher cookies for its needs. For instance, it can associate the binding between the Reader ID and the Publisher’s own user identity. AMP itself does not need to know about this (and prefers not to). For more detail, see the AMP Reader ID and AMP Access and Cookies documentation.

The AMP Runtime (or rather the browser) observes cache response headers when calling the Authorization endpoint. Thus the cached responses can be reused. This may or may not be desirable. If it is not desirable, the Publisher can use the appropriate cache control headers and/or the RANDOM variable substitution for the endpoint URL.

If the Authorization request fails, the AMP Runtime will fallback to the "authorizationFallbackResponse", if it’s specified in the configuration. In this case the authorization flow will proceed as normal with the value of the "authorizationFallbackResponse" property in place of the authorization response. If the "authorizationFallbackResponse" is not specified, the authorization flow will fail, in which case the amp-access expressions will not be evaluated and whether a section is visible or hidden will be determined by the presence of the amp-access-hide attribute initially provided by the document.

The Authorization request is automatically timed out and assumed to have failed after 3 seconds.

AMP Runtime uses the following CSS classes during the authorization flow:

  1. the amp-access-loading CSS class is set on the document root when the authorization flow starts and removed when it completes or fails.
  2. the amp-access-error CSS class is set on the document root when the authorization flow fails.

In the server option, the call to the Authorization endpoint is made by the Google AMP Cache as a simple HTTPS endpoint. This means that the Publisher’s cookies cannot be delivered in this case.

Pingback Endpoint

Pingback is configured via the pingback property in the AMP Access Configuration section. It is a credentialed CORS POST endpoint. See CORS Origin Security for how this request should be secured.

Pingback URL is optional. It can be disabled with "noPingback": true.

Pingback URL can take any parameters as defined in the Access URL Variables section. For instance, it could pass the AMP Reader ID and document URL. The inclusion of the READER_ID is required.

Pingback does not produce a response - any response is ignored by the AMP runtime.

The Pingback endpoint is called when the Reader has started viewing the document and after the Reader has successfully completed the Login Flow.

The publisher may choose to use the pingback:

  • to count down the number of free views of the page
  • to map the AMP Reader ID to the Publisher’s identity, since as a credentialed CORS endpoint, the Pingback may contain Publisher cookies

The request format is:

Login Page

The URL of the Login Page(s) is configured via the login property in the AMP Access Configuration section.

The configuration can specify either a single Login URL or a map of Login URLs keyed by the type of login. An example of a single Login URL:

  "login": "{READER_ID}"

An example of multiple Login URLs:

  "login": {
    "signin": "{READER_ID}",
    "signup": "{READER_ID}"

The URL can take any parameters as defined in the Access URL Variables section. For instance, it could pass the AMP Reader ID and document URL. The RETURN_URL query substitution can be used to specify the query parameter for the return URL, e.g. ?ret=RETURN_URL. The return URL is required and if the RETURN_URL substitution is not specified, it will be injected automatically with the default query parameter name of "return".

Login Page is simply a normal web page with no special constraints, other than it should function well as a browser dialog. See the Login Flow section for more details.

The request format is:

Notice that the "return" URL parameter is added by the AMP Runtime automatically if RETURN_URL substitution is not specified. Once the Login Page completes its work, it must redirect back to the specified "Return URL" with the following format:


Notice the use of a URL hash parameter "success". The value is either "true" or "false" depending on whether the login succeeds or is abandoned. Ideally the Login Page, when possible, will send the signal in cases of both success or failure.

If the success=true signal is returned, the AMP Runtime will repeat calls to the Authorization and Pingback endpoints to update the document’s state and report the "view" with the new access profile.

The Publisher may choose to place the Login Link anywhere in the content of the document.

One or more Login URLs are configured via the "login" property in the AMP Access Configuration section.

The Login link can be declared on any HTML element that allows the "on" attribute. Typically this would be an anchor or a button element. When a single Login URL is configured, the format is:

<a on="tap:amp-access.login">Login or subscribe</a>

When multiple Login URLs are configured, the format is tap:amp-access.login-{type}. Example:

<a on="tap:amp-access.login-signup">Subscribe</a>

When namespaces are used, the format is tap:amp-access.login-{namespace} or tap:amp-access.login-{namespace}-{type}.

AMP makes no distinction between login and subscribe. This distinction can be configured by the Publisher using multiple Login URLs/links or on the Publisher’s side.

Integration with amp-analytics

The integration with amp-analytics is documented in the

CORS Origin Security

Authorization and Pingback endpoints are CORS endpoints and they must implement the security protocol described in the AMP CORS Security Spec.


Metering is the system where the Reader is shown premium content for free for several document views in some period. Once some quota is reached, the Reader is shown the paywall kicks in and the Reader instead is shown partial content with upsell message and signup/login link. For instance, the metering can be defined as "Reader can read 10 articles per month for free".

AMP Access provides the following facilities for implementing metered access:

  1. READER_ID should be used to store metering information. Since the Publisher cannot rely on always being able to set cookies in a 3rd-party context, this data should be stored on the server-side.
  2. The "read count" can only be updated in the Pingback endpoint.
  3. Only unique documents can be counted against the quota. I.e. refreshing the same document ten times constitutes a single view. For this purpose Authorization and Pingback endpoints can inject SOURCE_URL or similar URL variables. See Access URL Variables.


Google’s First-click-free (or FCF) policy is described here, with the most recent update described in more detail here.

To implement FCF, the Publisher must (1) be able to determine the referring service for each view, and (2) be able to count number of views per day for each reader.

Both steps are covered by the AMP Access spec. The referrer can be injected into the Authorization and Pingback URLs using DOCUMENT_REFERRER URL substitution as described in Access URL Variables. The view counting can be done using Pingback endpoint on the server-side. This is very similar to the metering implementation described in Metering.

Login Flow

AMP launches a Login Dialog as a 1st party window or a popup or a tab. Whenever possible, AMP Viewers should attempt to launch Login Dialog in the browser context so that it can take advantage of the top-level browser APIs.

The login flow is started by the AMP Runtime when the Reader activates the Login Link and, descriptively, it follows the following steps:

  1. The Login Dialog (1st party window) is opened by AMP Runtime or Viewer for the specified Login URL. The URL contains an extra "Return URL" URL query parameter (&return=RETURN_URL). A number of other parameters can be also expanded into the URL, such as the Reader ID. For more details see Login Page section.
  2. Publisher displays a free-form Login page.
  3. The Reader follows login steps, such as entering username/password or using a social login.
  4. The Reader submits login. The publisher completes authentication, set cookies and finally redirects the Reader to the previously requested "Return URL". The redirect contains a URL hash parameter success that can be either true or false.
  5. The Login Dialog follows redirect to the "Return URL".
  6. AMP Runtime re-authorizes the document.

Only steps 2-5 require handling by the Publisher: the Publisher only provides their own Login Page and ensures correct redirect once it completes. There are no special constraints imposed on the login page, other than it should function well as a dialog.

As usual, the Reader ID should be included in the call to Login Page and can be used by the Publisher for identity mapping. As a 1st party window, the Publisher will also receive their cookies and will be able to set them. If it turns out that the Reader is already signed-in on the Publisher’s side, it is recommended that the publisher immediately redirect back to the "Return URL" with the success=true response.

AMP Glossary

  • AMP Document - the HTML document that follows AMP format and validated by AMP Validator. AMP Documents are cacheable by Google AMP Cache.
  • AMP Validator - the computer program that performs a static analysis of an HTML document and returns success or failure depending on whether the document conforms to the AMP format.
  • AMP Runtime - the JavaScript runtime that executes AMP Document.
  • Google AMP Cache - the proxying cache for AMP documents.
  • AMP Viewer - the Web or native application that displays/embeds AMP Documents.
  • - the site of an AMP publisher.
  • CORS endpoint - cross-origin HTTPS endpoint. See for more info. See CORS Origin Security for how such requests can be secured.
  • Reader - the actual person viewing AMP documents.
  • AMP Prerendering - AMP Viewers may take advantage of prerendering, which renders a hidden document before it can be shown. This adds a significant performance boost. But it is important to take into account the fact that the document prerendering does not constitute a view since the Reader may never actually see the document.


  • 2016-Sep-02: "noPingback" configuration property and optional pingback.
  • 2016-Mar-03: Resend pingback after login (v0.5).
  • 2016-Feb-19: Corrected samples to remove {} from URL var substitutions.
  • 2016-Feb-15: Configuration and Authorization Endpoint now allow "authorizationFallbackResponse" property that can be used when authorization fails.
  • 2016-Feb-11: Authorization request timeout in Authorization Endpoint.
  • 2016-Feb-11: Nested field references such as object.field are now allowed.
  • 2016-Feb-09: First-click-free and Metering sections.
  • 2016-Feb-03: Spec for "source origin" security added to the CORS Origin security.
  • 2016-Feb-01: "return" query parameter for Login Page can be customized using RETURN_URL URL substitution.

Appendix A: "amp-access" expression grammar

The most recent BNF grammar is available in access-expr-impl.jison file.

The key excerpt of this grammar is below:

    search_condition OR search_condition
  | search_condition AND search_condition
  | NOT search_condition
  | '(' search_condition ')'
  | predicate

    comparison_predicate | truthy_predicate

    scalar_exp '=' scalar_exp
  | scalar_exp '!=' scalar_exp
  | scalar_exp '<' scalar_exp
  | scalar_exp '<=' scalar_exp
  | scalar_exp '>' scalar_exp
  | scalar_exp '>=' scalar_exp

truthy_predicate: scalar_exp

scalar_exp: literal | field_ref

field_ref: field_ref '.' field_name | field_name


Notice that amp-access expressions are evaluated by the AMP Runtime and Google AMP Cache. This is NOT part of the specification that the Publisher needs to implement. It is here simply for informational purposes.

Detailed Discussion

This section will cover a detailed explanation of the design underlying the amp-access spec, and clarify design choices. Coming soon.


See amp-access rules in the AMP validator specification.

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